Combining two different polymer forms can switch manufacturing of silicon parts from molding, casting and spin coating of simple forms to 3D printing of complex geometries. These geometries have better mechanical characteristics and better biological adhesion, according to Penn State researchers.
"So far, PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane, or silicone) has limitations in formability and manufacturing of devices," said Ibrahim T. Ozbolat, Hartz Family Associate Professor of Engineering Science and Mechanics and bioengineering. "Most research is done using casting or micro molding, but this fabrication yields materials with weak mechanical properties and also weak cell adhesion. Researchers often use extracellular proteins like fibronectin to make cells adhere."
PDMS is used to make a lab-on-chip device, organ-on-a-chip devices and two- and three-dimensional cell culture platforms and biological machines. The material is more commonly seen as heat-resistant silicone spatulas and flexible baking pans, but these are geometrically simple and easily molded. If the material is used for growing tissue cultures or testing, the geometries become smaller and more complex.
For any material to serve as ‘ink’ in a 3D printer, it must be able to go through the printing nozzle and maintain shape once it is deposited. The material can’t spread, seep or flatten or the integrity of the design is lost. Sylgard 184, an elastomer of PDMS, is not viscose enough to use in 3D printing — the material flows out of the nozzle and puddles. But when it is mixed with SE 1700, another PDMS elastomer, in the proper ratio, the mixture is printable.
"We optimized the mixture for printability, to control extrusion and fidelity to the original pattern being printed," said Ozbolat.
The researchers optimized the mixture to take advantage of a materials property called “shear thinning.”
While most of the materials become more viscous under pressure, some materials have the opposite, non-Newtonian response, becoming less viscous. This works for 3D printing because a fluid that is viscous enough to sit in the nozzle and becomes less viscous when the pressure of pushing out the ‘ink’ occurs. As soon as the material leaves the nozzle, it regains viscosity and the find threads place on the object retain shape.
PDMS has a smooth surface when molded. The material is hydrophobic, so it doesn’t like water. With these two properties together, the molded surface of PDMS is not an easy place for tissue cells to adhere. Researchers often use coatings to increase cell adherence. 3D printed surfaces, because they are made up of thousands of tiny strands of PDMS, have minute crevices that offer cells a place to stick.
To test the fidelity of 3D printing with PDMS, the researchers obtained patterns for biological features — hands, noses, blood vessels, ears and femoral hand from the National Institutes of Health 3D Print Exchange. Using these patterns they 3D printed a nose. Organs can be printed without support materials and include hollow cavities and complex geometries.
"We coated the PDMS nose with water and imaged it in an MRI machine," said Ozbolat. "We compared the 3-D reconstructed nose image to the original pattern and found that we had pretty decent shape fidelity."
Because PDMS is forced through a nozzle for printing, the number of bubbles in the final material is less than with molding or casting. Passing through a micrometer size needle removes most of the bubbles.
"When we compared the mechanical signatures of molded or cast PDMS with 3-D printed PDMS, we found the tensile strength of the printed material was much better," said Ozbolat.
Because the PDMS materials are being printed, they could be incorporated with other materials to make one-piece devices composed of multiple materials. They could incorporate conductive materials to enable functionalized devices.