Discrete and Process Automation

The relationship between artificial intelligence and machine learning

04 April 2023
The relationship between AI, ML, reinforcement learning and DL. Source: N. Mughees

The human brain is one of the most impressive "machines" in terms of its capacity for learning and problem-solving. The term "brain-inspired computation" is frequently used to describe a subfield in machine learning (ML) based on the actual functioning of the brain. The neuron is often considered to be the primary bio-computing unit, as all judgments are made based on the diverse information acquired by the complicated linked network of neurons. The Artificial Neural Network, an ML method, accomplishes this very goal. This article briefly differentiates between the terms that are often used when working in the area of artificial intelligence (AI).

How are AI, deep learning and ML related?

The goal of AI is to give machines capabilities normally associated with human beings. ML represents an approach to AI that uses algorithms to analyze data, learn from that data, and then apply that learning to make judgments and predictions about the world as it exists. Deep learning (DL) allows ML to realize a wide variety of applications and increases the potential of AI. DL is an ML network that includes more than three layers, or more than one hidden layer. The structure of the human nervous system, with neurons interconnected and sharing information, is a good analogy for DL algorithms. At the very least, a standard DL model will consist of three interconnected "layers," each of which will take and pass along the data it has received from the layers below it. Traditional ML models plateau in performance after a certain quantity of data, but DL models generally perform well with increasing amounts of data.

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Types of ML

The techniques to implement ML have been divided into unsupervised learning, supervised learning and reinforcement learning.

Unsupervised learning

The goal of unsupervised learning is to evaluate and group unlabeled information using ML algorithms. These artificial techniques find previously unknown relationships between data points without needing any guidance from the training dataset. Image recognition, cross-selling techniques, exploratory data analysis and consumer segmentation are all problems where this approach excels at solving because of its capacity to uncover similarities and contrasts in data. Associating, clustering and reducing the dimensions of data are the three most common applications of unsupervised learning models.

Let's pretend we feed an unsupervised learning system a dataset of pictures of various dog and cat breeds. Due to the lack of training on the provided dataset, the algorithm is completely unaware of the characteristics that make up that dataset. The unsupervised learning algorithm is tasked with discovering the picture characteristics on its own. Therefore, it will handle this task by organizing the photos in the dataset into groups based on their shared characteristics.

Supervised learning

In supervised learning, computers are taught to make predictions based on past data that has been explicitly labeled for them. Labeled data indicates that certain inputs have been pre-tagged with the appropriate outcomes or targets. The data used for training the system serves as a kind of supervisor, helping it learn how to make accurate predictions. It uses the same idea that a student does while under the guidance of a teacher. In supervised learning, the goal is to discover a function that connects the input variable to the target variable. The technology has practical applications in areas such as spam filtering, fraud detection, image categorization and risk assessment.

Reinforcement learning

The third kind of ML, reinforcement learning, is sometimes also referred to as evaluative learning. Programmers use reinforcement learning to create a system that incentivizes the right actions and discourages the wrong ones. The strategy rewards the agent for doing the desired behavior and punishes it for performing the undesirable behavior. Consequently, the agent is trained to maximize its long-term rewards rather than its immediate ones. Because of these long-term goals, the agent is less likely to become stuck on intermediate objectives and learns to ignore bad feedback and actively seeks out favorable feedback over time.

This technique has found widespread use in AI as a means of steering unsupervised ML with the help of incentives and punishments. DL can also be combined with reinforcement learning to achieve deep reinforcement learning-based algorithms. To make progress toward universal AI, deep reinforcement learning attempts to combine the optimization goal of reinforcement learning with the operating mechanism of DL.

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Technically speaking, all ML is AI, but not all AI is ML. In the same way, all DL is ML but the reverse is not always true. Therefore, the following points summarize the relationship between all these quantities:

  • AI is machine intelligence that can mimic human behavior.
  • ML is one method to achieve AI.
  • Reinforcement learning, unsupervised learning, DL and supervised learning are all different techniques to implement ML.
To contact the author of this article, email GlobalSpecEditors@globalspec.com

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