Overview / Main Features
The Vodafone 228 is a slider, entry-level dual-band GSM/GPRS phone manufactured for Vodafone by ZTE, China. This phone is based on the Infineon X-GOLD 101 GSM chip which represents virtually the complete electronics for a phone in a single chip by integrating baseband, RF transceiver and ABB/power management functions into a single chip.
This platform is aimed at the ultra-low-cost handset segment (which applies to this phone). The Vodafone 228 thus qualifies by all standards as an entry-level phone destined for either emerging markets, or even more developed markets as a prepaid phone.
The Vodafone 228 has only the most basic of phone features as well as data rate (GSM /GPRS) and none of the extra features that have become relatively common (Bluetooth, Camera, Etc.) but does feature, at least, a color screen (1.7 inch diagonal).
Entry-level / low-end prepaid segment in Europe, or emerging markets. Launched first by Vodafone in Romania.
Release / Availability
Press release: February 20, 2008.
Free to Romanian Vodafone customers w/ 2-year contract. 44 Euros without contract (prepaid). (March 08).
For the purposes of this teardown analysis, we have assumed a lifetime production volume of 1.1 M units.
As a reminder, teardown volume production assumptions are primarily used for our cost analysis in terms of amortized NRE and tooling costs, especially for custom components specific to the model being analyzed (mechanical components especially). Unless assumed volumes are different by an order of magnitude, minor changes in volume (say 1 million vs. 2) rarely have a large net effect on our final analysis because of this.
As part of iSuppli's Design Forecast Tool (DFT), we forecast handset shipments by major design feature and manufacture, as well as the number of design starts a manufacturer will have by feature set.
As part of our research in the DFT, we estimate unit shipments of 32 million units of GSM (only) phones to ship in the global 2008 market. GSM only-phones are clearly on the wane, per our forecast.
Overall, however, we estimate ZTE's global unit market share in 2008 to be approximately 2% at the time of writing.
Main Cost Drivers
Infineon - PMB7880 - Baseband / RF Transceiver / Power Management - Dual Band, GSM900/1900 - Qty(1)
Display Module - 1.7' Diagonal, 65K Color CSTN, 128 x 160 Pixels - Qty(1)
ZTE - Li3707T42P3h463848 - Battery - Li-ion, 3.7V, 720mAh - Qty(1)
Samsung Semiconductor - K5A3281CTM-D755000 - MCP - 32Mb NOR Flash + 8Mb SRAM, 3V - Qty(1)
TriQuint Semiconductor - TQM6M4028E - Transmit Module - PAM - Dual Band GSM/GPRS 900/1800, w/ Integrated Antenna Switch - Qty(1)
LEDs - White - Qty(6)
LEDs - White - Qty(4)
PCB - Compeq - 6-Layer - FR4/RCF HDI - 1+4+1 - Qty(1)
Battery Cover - Injection Molded Polycarbonate, Red Painted, Silkscreened - Qty(1)
Silicon Laboratories - Si4702/3 - FM Radio Tuner - Qty(1)
PCB - 2-Layer - Flex Kapton - Qty(1)
Total w/ Manufacturing $31.84
What Is Not Included in our Cost Analysis
The total materials and manufacturing costs reported in this analysis reflect ONLY the direct materials cost (from component vendors and assorted EMS providers), AND manufacturing with basic test. Not included in this analysis are costs above and beyond the material manufacture of the core device itself cost of intellectual property, royalties and licensing fees (those not already included into the per component price), software, software loading and test, shipping, logistics marketing and other channel costs including not only EMS provider and the OEM's margin, but that of other resellers. Our cost analysis is meant to focus on those costs incurred in the manufacture of the core device and exceptionally in some circumstances the packaging and literature as well.
ZTE's Relationships and Manufacturing
We do not track, as part of iSuppli research, ZTE's manufacturing and EMS relationships, however, based on their Chinese origins, we are assuming that ZTE are building in house and sourcing, where not otherwise noted domestically in China.
Country of Origin / Volume Assumptions
This product, as is typically the case from our experience, was labeled as made in China. Furthermore, we have assumed that for this model, that the PCB was also populated in China, and that custom mechanicals (plastics and metals) were sourced locally as well.
Country of origin assumptions relate directly to the associated cost of manufacturing, where calculated by iSuppli. In the cases of finished sub-assemblies (such as Bluetooth modules), we do not calculate internal manufacturing costs, but rather assess the market price of the finished product in which case country of origin assumptions may or may not have a direct effect on pricing.
Remember also that labor rates are applied directly only to hand inserted components and systems in our bill of materials, and although regional assumptions do, these new rates do not have a direct effect on our modeled calculations of placement costs for automated SMD assembly lines. Auto-inserted components (such as SMT components) placement costs are calculated by an iSuppli algorithm which allocates a cost per component based on the size and pincount of the device. This calculation is affected by country or region of origin as well.
Design for Manufacturing / Device Complexity
The Vodafone (ZTE) 228 has a total component count (less box contents) of 401 components, of which 82 are mechanical in nature. Interestingly, this phone should have, considering its feature-set and level of integration, one of the lowest component counts ever seen but, in fact, does not appears to be the case as we have seen other ULCH phones with 25% fewer components (~300).
Component counts have a direct bearing on the overall manufacturing cycle times and costs, and also can increase or decrease overall yields and re-work. Our calculations of manufacturing costs factor counts and more qualitative complexities in the design.
Note that manual labor has a much smaller effect on auto-insertion assembly lines (for the Main PCB, for example), where manufacturing costs are much more capital equipment intensive and driven by these investment costs.
The design revolves around an Infineon PMB7880 chip, which is also called their X-GOLD 101 chip. It is essentially approaching a handset-on-a-chip, or as close as is currently available on the market by integrating 3 major functions into one chip: digital baseband and analog baseband, power management, RF transceiver function, and even SRAM content into one chip. Infineon developed this chip for the ultra lowcost handset market (which iSuppli Defines as handsets with a HW+SW BOM cost of less than $32. This implies an OEM factory ASP of typically $40.)
Beyond the PMB7880, little else is required (a TriQuint Semiconductor (TQM6M4028E) Transmit Module - PAM - Dual Band GSM/GPRS 900/1800, w/ Integrated Antenna Switch), a very low-end memory MCP (32Mb NOR + 8Mb) in this case a Samsung Semiconductor - K5A3281CTM-D755000.
Overall this is, by definition, one of the most basic and highly integrated phones seen in iSuppli teardowns.
Baseband / RF / Power Management
Baseband / RF Transceiver / Power Management - Dual Band, GSM900/1800 - Infineon - PMB7880
MCP - Samsung Semiconductor - K5A3281CTM-D755000 - 32Mb NOR Flash + 8Mb SRAM, 3V
Transmit Module - TriQuint Semiconductor - TQM6M4028E - PAM - Dual Band GSM/GPRS 900/1800, w/ Integrated Antenna Switch
1.7' Diagonal, 65K Color CSTN, 128 x 160 Pixels